Information systems have long and firmly entered our daily life. We come across examples of information systems everywhere - at work, at home, even in transport.
With the growth of software, information systems can be implemented in any area of life.
Any organization can no longer fully engage in any activity without information and analytical systems, and even at schools worldwide, children learn an introduction to information systems.
We can say those information systems are our assistants, so they deserve a separate article.
Before we learn what information systems examples we meet in our daily life, we should start with the information system definition.
What is information systems?
If you need to define information systems properly you can use the definition from Wikipedia that says:
“An information system is a system for storing, searching and processing information, and organizational resources (human, technical, financial, etc.) that provide and disseminate information.”
All information systems are a kind of informational reference book or informational database. Each of these is subdivided into others, with a more specific focus, for example, by subject - medicine, geography, etc. Thus, each field of activity has its information management system.
What are information systems’ goals?
As you can see from the definition of information systems they are essential to help in finding the information you need so this is one of the main goals of information systems.
With computer information systems this process is fast, convenient and practical.
Moreover, soon the information in electronic form will replace paper documents, since handling electronic documents is much easier, faster and more economical. Thus, the second goal is to improve our life, make it more convenient and easy.
As far as we found out what an information system is and its main goals, let’s see the main types of information systems.
Different types of information systems and their main functions
Before we talk about types of information systems we should notice three main groups of information systems, which are directly related to their scale.
Here they are:
Individual information systems
These information systems are created exclusively for one user, they contain personal data entered into this system by the user himself.
A collective information system
It is a system designed for a small group of people and containing information available exclusively to them.
A corporate information system
Such a system can include both small and large enterprises.
Let’s now see the nine examples of information systems in everyday life.
# 1 Management information systems
The efficiency of a business largely depends on its management information system. When we talk about management information systems, we mean systems for information support of managers involved in the management process.
The main goal of information management systems is to provide managers with the timely information necessary for making operational decisions.
The most popular management information systems examples that help to make management decisions are the following:
- Project management systems
- Business plans
- Human resource management system
- Automating budgeting systems
- Programs for automating workflow and business processes
- CRM systems
The popularity and demand for management information systems are since such systems help to meet the main need of managers — to provide themselves with the ability to make quick and effective decisions.
Determining the quality of an information system for a business is important because such a system is designed to become an integral part of the business.
# 2 Geographic information systems
Few of us think about how deeply geoinformation technologies have penetrated our lives. For example, map services are used in smartphones:
- to track the location of users and use this information in targeted advertising
- for routing
- for statistical data, etc.
At the same time, we do not think that all these functions are possible due to the use of complex algorithms of geographic information systems.
Geographic information system (GIS) is a system that helps to collect, store, analyze, and visualize various geographic (spatial) data and all associated information.
The concept of a geographic information system is also used in a narrower sense - as a tool (software product) that allows users to search, analyze and edit both a digital map of the area and additional information about objects.
# 3 Medical information systems
Today, almost all medical organizations use medical information systems to organize their work.
Medical Information System (MIS) is a complex software product, which main purpose is to automate all the key work processes of medical institutions of general and narrow specialization.
The advantages of medical information systems are as follows:
- For the management of the clinic - a convenient display of statistics on the work of the clinic and a constructor for building reports.
- For the clinic administrator - a convenient system for displaying the schedule of each specialist, accounting and printing the necessary documents at the click of a mouse.
- For doctors - appointment reminders, complete medical history, various treatment plans and price lists for services.
Now the market for these products has hundreds of ready-made solutions. Also, many medical institutions choose custom software development that takes into account all the nuances of their work.
# 4 Laboratory information systems
Nowadays, many companies understand that quality is one of the factors determining success in the competition.
The only source of information about the most important characteristics of a manufactured product is the research laboratory. Optimizing the activities of laboratories is possible by introducing a specialized information system.
Laboratory Information System (LIS) is an information technology system designed to obtain reliable information about test results and optimize the management of this information to use it for making operational management decisions.
Modern laboratory information systems are complex systems that bring many benefits and allow solving numerous tasks facing the laboratory such as:
- sample management
- streamline workflows
- inventory tracking
- data exchange automation
- reporting automation
The most valuable quality of laboratory information systems is their versatility and simplicity, as well as the reflection of the requirements of normative documents on metrology and analytics, which make it possible to speed up the automation process and thereby reduce the lag in the development of laboratories and the entire production.
# 5 Accounting information systems
The correct organization of finances is one of the most important factors for the success and viability of a business.
Accounting information system ensures support for accounting and financial analysis that allow:
- assessing the financial condition of the enterprise
- analyzing the structure of its assets and liabilities
- studying the rate of capital turnover
- finding out the profitability of using funds
Accounting information systems are systems that automate accounting and financial reporting.
Financial analysis modules in one form or another are included in enterprise management information systems and many accounting systems focused on medium and large enterprises.
# 6 Logistics information systems
Every business, whether it is a manufacturing or a trading company, needs to be supplied with necessary things for productive work, such as goods or raw materials. This is where logistics comes into play as it is organizing the profitable movement of goods and services from suppliers to customers.
Information systems in logistics are used quite often to put documents in order, manage settlements, track the execution of delivery orders in real-time.
Dedicated logistics software has many unique features:
- allows the enterprise to completely change the parameters of operational accounting
- reduce costs
- relieve staff from burdensome duties
The logistics information system allows you to control each delivery, can establish the location of the transport and the stage of the application, which brings logistics to a qualitatively different level and allows you to improve work, optimize the main processes and increase the profit of any business.
# 7 Tourism information systems
Tourism is a powerful industry for trade in services, in particular, such as:
- organization of tourist trips
- sale of vouchers and tours
- accommodation and meals for tourists
- production and sale of goods for tourist demand, etc.
Other industries work for tourism, for which tourist services are not the main activity (cultural, trade, etc.).
All this makes tourism an area of growing application of information systems, which include:
- computer backup system
- systems for teleconferencing, video systems, computers, information management systems
- electronic information systems of airlines
- electronic transfer of money, etc.
It should be noted that the tourism information system is used not only by travel agents, hotels or airlines separately, but all of them as a whole. This makes the tourism business developing and stable even in the face of changing circumstances.
# 8 Banking information systems
For the banking sector, the merger with information technology is perhaps one of the main achievements of our time. Integration of information systems allows banks to increase productivity, attract new users, improve security and process information faster.
Banking information systems is a complex of programs and advanced technologies that covers all automated banking operations and tasks.
Here are just some of the issues that banking information systems solve:
- supporting complex technologies and individual bank requirements
- organization of work for remote online offices
- real-time carrying out large-scale financial transactions
- ensuring the stability of work even in the event of a sharp increase in clients and operations
- efficient document management
- operational preparation of analytics and reports, etc.
The most famous examples of banking information systems are:
- Open banking is a system for the remote provision of banking services via the Internet.
- Remote banking system for receipt of financial information and management of bank accounts remotely.
- SWIFT system for countering settlements between banks.
# 9 Educational information systems
It is difficult to imagine the full functioning of a modern educational institution without information systems, especially because of the situation caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Distance learning has further increased the need to automate all processes in educational institutions.
Thanks to the introduction of information systems, the education sector can:
- simplify the activities of administrators and teachers by reducing routine operations
- ensure the collection, processing and analysis of information on the course of the educational or other processes
- to form a unified information infrastructure of the institution
- organize information interaction between all employees of the educational institution
Thus, information systems are necessary to create an information and technological base for managing an educational institution and ensuring its successful activity.
Information systems: results and conclusions
Summing up, we can say that by using information systems humanity has stepped far along the path of progress and innovation. With them, you just need to set the necessary search parameters and the result can be obtained in a few seconds.
Today, perhaps, there are no areas of our life in which information systems and technologies would not find application. Although we have considered only a few examples we all use different types of information systems in this or that way in our daily lives.
The main thing that you need to remember about information systems, is that they simplify the search for the necessary information, as well as allow you to select certain search criteria. They improve workflows, reduce chores, simplify documentation and much more.
Use all the achievements of humanity and always keep up with the times!